Aliens exit permit – China 1949
Early Communist issue for use together with a passport.
The Peoples Republic of China was founded in October of 1949. Years of civil war and unrest that rampaged throughout the country came to an end. The struggle to secure stability, in a nation that has seen domestic and foreign chaos for the past 100 years, was finally achieved by Mao Zedong and his party.
One of the cities that were liberated by the advancing communist forces, the Peoples Liberation Army (PLA), was the port city of Shanghai. For many years the city was divided and controlled: by the local Chinese authorities and also by the Europeans, who have made this city their home for close to 100 years. Special enclaves and self-governed “municipalities” existed: a state-within-state.
The city saw some of the worst that war can offer: under Japanese occupation the Jewish Ghetto was established in 1943, with German encouragement, and civilian internment camps as well. And following the surrender of the enemy in September of 1945, civil war broke out, the struggle between the Communists and the Nationalists (the then existing government in pre-1949 China).
The city was also home to thousands of refugees, local and foreigners, who had lost everything. Various aid organizations were operating, struggling to offer the necessities to those who needed it the most. The foreigners were desperately trying to leave the city and country as well, fearing the worst to come:
the hostilities between the two main sides was increasing and the Communists were advancing towards the city as well.
One such foreigner was a young Jewish lady, a native from Harbin, who studied dentistry. Tatiana Billick was 29 years old when she applied for the aliens exit permit, using her Soviet passport that she managed to obtain 3 years earlier at the Consulate in Tianjin, 90km east of Beijing.
What is very interesting is that though the permit is dated from the end of October, issued by the newly founded Peoples Republic of China public security bureau, it clearly mentions inside that the holder’s destination was ISRAEL.
I have added a translation of the document as well.
Hope you enjoy the images.